10 Healthy Foods to Include During Iftar

Iftar is the daily meal at sunset during the holy month of Ramadan. Having a nutritious iftar meal is important to replenish energy stores and sustain fasting on the following day. It should be a balanced meal that provides our body with its needs without adding unnecessary calories. Ms. Arhum Shabir, Clinical Dietitian at Lifecare Hospital, shares tips on healthy foods to include during Iftar.

Hydration/Fluids: Start your iftar with hydration: One cup of water/low-fat milk/laban to provide essential fluids lost throughout the day.

Dates: Have two to three dates to boost natural sugar and energy after long fasting hours. Dates are an excellent source of fiber.

Soups: Soup helps prepare your stomach to receive the rest of the meal as well as replenishing body fluids. Lentil soup or mixed vegetable soup are great options. Avoid ready-made soups as well as creamy soups.

Choose Good Carbohydrates: Your iftar meal should contain a source of carbohydrates, preferably complex. These include brown rice, whole-grain pasta or bread, oats, and potatoes. Complex carbohydrates provide a more stable and sustainable source of energy in addition to fiber and minerals.

Lean Meat: At iftar, you should aim to eat high-quality protein that is highly digestible and contains all the essential amino acids. Your body uses these to build and maintain muscle mass. Choose lean proteins to get the benefits with little saturated fats. Include fish, skinless chicken or turkey, and low-fat dairy as part of your iftar meal. If you’re vegetarian, you can select other protein sources such as legumes, beans, and nuts.

Nuts: Almonds contain good fats which are essential, particularly when your body has been craving fats after the long hours of fasting. Raw nuts are perfect for iftar as they can help you to feel full and in control, without the need to binge.

Fresh Juices: Homemade fruit juices or smoothies are nutritious options for breaking the fast. They provide hydration, vitamins, and natural sugars for energy.

Fruits: Fruits like watermelon, oranges, grapes, and melons are refreshing and hydrating options for breaking the fast. They provide essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.

Salads: Fresh vegetable salads with lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, and other seasonal vegetables are light, hydrating, and provide essential vitamins and minerals.

Yogurt: Plain yogurt or yogurt-based drinks are popular choices for breaking the fast. They are refreshing, hydrating, and provide probiotics that aid digestion.

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Pranjal Bhattacharjee

Understanding Glaucoma: Types, Symptoms, and Treatment for Optimal Eye Health

More than half of individuals affected by glaucoma are unaware of their condition, emphasizing the silent and gradual nature of this eye disease. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the various aspects of glaucoma, including its types, symptoms, and crucial treatment options. Learn why early detection through comprehensive dilated eye exams is paramount for preserving your vision.

Types of Glaucoma

Understanding the classification of glaucoma is crucial for early identification and treatment. The disease can be broadly categorized based on origin (primary and secondary) and angle width (open- or closed-angle).

  • Primary Glaucoma : Originating without any apparent underlying cause.
  • Secondary Glaucoma: Developing as a result of other eye conditions or complications.
  • Open-Angle Glaucoma : Characterized by a wide and open angle between the iris and cornea.
  • Closed-Angle Glaucoma: Involves a narrow or closed angle, impacting fluid drainage from the eye.

High-Risk Factors

Certain individuals are more susceptible to glaucoma, necessitating proactive measures. If you fall into any of the following categories, it’s crucial to undergo a comprehensive dilated eye exam every 1 to 2 years.

  • Age over 40
  • Family history of glaucoma
  • Diabetes
  • Myopia (nearsightedness)

Recognizing Symptoms and Seeking Immediate Help

The slow progression of glaucoma often results in subtle symptoms that may go unnoticed. However, in the case of angle-closure glaucoma, sudden and intense symptoms may arise, including:

  • Intense eye pain
  • Upset stomach (nausea)
  • Red eyes
  • Blurry vision

If you experience any of these symptoms, seek immediate medical attention to prevent further damage.

Diagnosis Methods

Early diagnosis is pivotal in managing glaucoma effectively. The following diagnostic methods play a crucial role in assessing the condition:

  • IOP Measurement (Intraocular Pressure): Measures the pressure within the eye.
  • Dilated Fundus Examination: Focuses on the optic disc for signs of damage.
  • Visual Field Test: Assesses peripheral vision.
  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Creates detailed images of the optic nerve.

Given the minimal symptoms until advanced stages, regular eye check-ups are essential for early detection and intervention.

Treatment Options

While there is no cure for glaucoma, timely treatment can halt further vision deterioration. Various treatment modalities exist, including:

  • Medications: Typically in the form of eye drops to reduce intraocular pressure.
  • Laser Treatment: Targets specific areas of the eye to enhance fluid drainage.
  • Surgery: Invasive procedures to create new drainage channels or reduce fluid production.

Initiating treatment promptly won’t reverse existing damage, but it significantly mitigates the risk of further vision loss.


Prioritize your eye health by understanding the nuances of glaucoma, its types, and the importance of regular eye examinations. Awareness, coupled with proactive measures, can be your strongest defense against the silent threat of vision loss. Start your journey towards optimal eye health today and ensure a clearer tomorrow.

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Fayaz Ahmed Soomro
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Taking Charge of Your Health: Understanding GERD Beyond Heartburn

Taking Charge of Your Health: Understanding GERD Beyond Heartburn

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) goes beyond mere heartburn, and taking control of your health is crucial. In this blog post, we delve into GERD symptoms, recommended foods, foods to avoid, and essential lifestyle modifications.

Understanding GERD Symptoms:

GERD manifests when stomach contents flow backward into the esophagus, causing heartburn—a burning sensation in the chest. Recognizing symptoms is vital:

  • Heartburn (especially after eating or lying down)
  • Regurgitation of food or sour liquid
  • Chest pain
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Dry cough
  • Wheezing
  • Laryngitis
  • Asthma
  • Water brash
  • Burping, hiccups, nausea, and vomiting

Foods to Include in a GERD Diet:

Opting for GERD-friendly foods can alleviate symptoms and strengthen the lower esophageal sphincter. Consider including:

  • Whole grains (oats, brown rice, quinoa)
  • Lean proteins (chicken, fish, beans)
  • Low-fat dairy (yogurt, skim milk)
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Healthy fats (olive oil, avocados)

Foods to Avoid with GERD:

Certain foods trigger GERD symptoms due to high fat, acidity, or caffeine content. Minimize intake of:

  • Fatty and fried foods
  • Butter, whole milk, regular cheese
  • Garlic, onion, spicy foods
  • Tomato-based foods
  • Citrus fruits
  • Chocolate
  • Peppermint
  • Carbonated and caffeinated beverages

Lifestyle Modifications:

Aside from a GERD-friendly diet, lifestyle adjustments play a key role:

  • Eat small, frequent meals
  • Avoid late-night eating
  • Refrain from lying down post-meals
  • Elevate head while sleeping
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Stay upright for at least 2 hours post-meals
  • Quit smoking
  • Limit alcohol consumption

When to Seek Medical Advice:

Consult a healthcare professional if:

  • Frequent, severe GERD symptoms persist for more than 2 weeks
  • Vomiting, especially with blood or coffee-colored content
  • Blood in stools or black stools
  • Difficulty and pain during swallowing
  • Abdominal pain
  • Chronic cough or feeling of a lump in the throat
  • Unexplained weight loss

Visiting the Doctor:

Upon seeking medical advice, expect a tailored treatment plan. This may involve a GERD-friendly diet, lifestyle changes, and medication. Your doctor might recommend further tests like Endoscopy, Barium swallow, Manometry, and PH metry based on your symptoms.

Taking proactive steps against GERD ensures a healthier and more comfortable life.

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Understanding Hyperlipidemia: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

Understanding Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia, also known as high cholesterol, is a prevalent condition affecting millions worldwide. It involves excessive fat in the blood, elevating the risk of severe health issues like heart attacks and strokes. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of hyperlipidemia, exploring its causes, symptoms, and effective treatment options.

What is Hyperlipidemia?

Hyperlipidemia denotes an imbalance of cholesterol and triglycerides in the bloodstream. Cholesterol and triglycerides, vital for bodily functions, can turn harmful when present in excess. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) and HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) are essential types of lipoproteins responsible for carrying these fats in the blood. While HDL safeguards arteries, LDL can lead to plaque formation, causing atherosclerosis, a primary cause of heart diseases.

Causes of Hyperlipidemia:

Genetic predisposition, unhealthy lifestyle choices, obesity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions like diabetes and liver diseases contribute to hyperlipidemia. Genetic factors can lead to disorders such as familial hypercholesterolemia, elevating heart disease risks. Lifestyle changes, however, can significantly impact cholesterol levels.


A lipid profile blood test assesses cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride levels. Normal ranges vary based on age and gender. American Heart Association recommends:

  • Total cholesterol: less than 200 mg/dL
  • LDL: less than 100 mg/dL
  • HDL: 40 mg/dL or higher for men; 50 mg/dL or higher for women
  • Triglycerides: less than 150 mg/dL

Treatment Options:

  1. Lifestyle Changes:
    • Balanced diet: low in saturated fats, high in fiber, fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.
    • Regular exercise: 150 minutes/week of moderate aerobic activity, strength training, and flexibility exercises.
    • Weight management: 5-10% body weight loss significantly impacts cholesterol.
    • Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol intake.
  2. Medications:
    • Statins: (e.g., atorvastatin, rosuvastatin) Lower LDL and slightly raise HDL, reducing plaque buildup.
    • Bile Acid Sequestrants: (e.g., cholestyramine) Bind bile acids, forcing the liver to use more cholesterol.
    • Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors: (e.g., ezetimibe) Block cholesterol absorption in intestines.
    • Fibrates: (e.g., fenofibrate) Lower triglycerides and raise HDL.
    • Niacin: Vitamin B3 that reduces LDL and triglycerides, significantly raises HDL.
  3. PCSK9 Inhibitors: (e.g., alirocumab, evolocumab) Block protein hindering LDL clearance, used for high LDL levels or familial hypercholesterolemia.

Prevention and Conclusion:

Regular cholesterol checks, especially for those over 40, diabetics, hypertensive individuals, smokers, and those with a family history of high cholesterol, are crucial. Remember, prevention is better than cure. Maintain a healthy lifestyle and prioritize your cardiovascular health!

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Krishnamurthy Hegde
Padmarajan T
Baiju Faizal
Haseena N M
Amjad Hussain
Rajashaker Reddy K
Mansoor Ahmed Bashir
Hafeesh Fazulu Rahman
Khaled Galal 
Sekar Wariar
Subhani Shaik
Sarath Babu

Common Skin Conditions in Summer and Measures to Prevent Them

Common Skin Conditions in Summer

Essential Summer Skincare Tips for the UAE.

Our skin acts as the primary barrier protecting us from environmental stressors. However, during the summer, whether we stay indoors or outdoors, our skin in the UAE is particularly susceptible to various conditions due to the intense heat and sun. In this blog, titled “Essential Summer Skincare Tips for the UAE,” we will discuss common skin conditions that occur in summer and provide you with effective measures to prevent them.

Acne breakouts:

The mix of sweat, bacteria, and oils on our skin can lead to clogged pores and acne breakouts, especially for those with acne-prone skin. To prevent acne, dermatologists recommend the following:

  • Gently blot sweat from your skin using a clean towel or cloth, as wiping can irritate the skin.
  • Use non-comedogenic and oil-free products on your face, neck, back, and chest.

Dry, irritated skin:

Despite the hot and humid outdoor air, dry and irritated skin can still occur, often due to sun exposure, pool water, and air conditioning. Here are some tips to combat dryness and irritation:

  • After swimming, immediately shower with fresh water and use a mild cleanser or body wash designed for swimmers.
  • Apply broad-spectrum sunscreen before going outdoors, with SPF 30+ and water resistance.
  • Use a gentle cleanser instead of antibacterial or deodorant soaps, as they can dry out the skin.
  • Take showers and baths in warm, not hot, water.
  • Moisturize with a fragrance-free moisturizer within 5 minutes of showering or bathing.


Infected hair follicles can result in folliculitis, causing itchy and tender bumps resembling pimples. To reduce the risk of folliculitis:

  • Change out of tight workout clothes and shower immediately after exercising.
  • Be cautious when using hot tubs or whirlpools, ensuring proper acid and chlorine levels.
  • Opt for lightweight and loose-fitting clothing in hot and humid weather.


Exposure to sunlight can make melasma, characterized by brown to gray-brown patches on the face, more noticeable. Here are some tips for managing melasma during the summer:

  • Wear sun-protective clothing and wide-brimmed hats.
  • Apply broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30+.
  • Seek shade whenever possible.

Prickly heat (or heat rash):

Prickly heat occurs when sweat glands become blocked, leading to a rash and itchy bumps. To prevent prickly heat:

  • Opt for lightweight, loose-fitting clothes made of cotton.
  • Exercise during cooler parts of the day or in air-conditioned environments.
  • Keep the skin cool with fans, cool showers, and air-conditioning.

Seabather’s eruption:

This itchy rash, also known as pica-pica, develops when jellyfish or sea anemone larvae get trapped between the skin and swimwear. To prevent seabather’s eruption:

  • Avoid swimming in infested waters, indicated by signs or recent cases of rashes.
  • Take precautions by wearing appropriate swimwear and gear.

Sun allergy:

Some individuals can develop hives and allergic reactions when exposed to the sun. To prevent sun allergies:

  • Check medication labels for any sun sensitivity warnings.
  • Seek shade, wear sun-protective clothing, and apply broad-spectrum sunscreen.


Sunburn not only spoils summer fun but also increases the risk of skin cancer. Follow these preventive measures:

  • Seek shade whenever possible and wear a wide-brimmed hat, sunglasses, long sleeves, and pants.
  • Apply broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 30+ and water resistance.

Seek Expert Consultation at Lifecare Hospital

Taking care of your skin during the summer is crucial to avoid common skin conditions and maintain its health and appearance. By following the preventive measures mentioned above, you can enjoy the season without worrying about skin issues. If you need professional guidance or treatment for any dermatological concerns, we invite you to visit the dermatology department at Lifecare Hospital. Our team of expert dermatologists will provide you with personalized care and solutions to keep your skin in its best condition. Don’t hesitate to schedule an appointment and experience exceptional dermatological care at Lifecare Hospital. Your skin deserves the best!

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Nadia Farooq
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Heat-Related Illnesses in UAE: Symptoms, Causes, and Prevention

Heat-Related Illnesses in UAE

In the UAE’s hot and humid climate, it is crucial to be aware of heat-related illnesses and take preventive measures to stay safe. Here’s a comprehensive guide on heat-related illnesses, their symptoms, causes, and how to prevent them.

What are Heat-Related Illnesses? Heat-related illnesses occur when the body is exposed to abnormal or prolonged heat and humidity without adequate relief or fluid intake. They can occur during physical activities or while working in high-temperature environments.

The Four Common Heat-Related Illnesses:

  1. Heat Rash (Prickly Heat or Miliaria): A stinging skin irritation that turns the skin red.
  2. Heat Cramps: Painful spasms in the muscles.
  3. Heat Exhaustion: Caused by fluid deficiency and prolonged exposure to high temperatures, resulting in heavy sweating, a fast and weak pulse, and rapid breathing.
  4. Heat Stroke: A life-threatening illness where body temperature rises above 106 degrees Fahrenheit (41 degrees Celsius) rapidly.

How Does the Body Stay Cool?

The body maintains a healthy core temperature through a process called thermoregulation. Controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, thermoregulation activates receptors in the skin and other organs, promoting heat loss and regulating core temperature. Sweating and evaporation play a vital role in dissipating heat from the body. However, if the heat entering the body exceeds the rate of heat leaving, the core temperature rises, increasing the risk of heat-related illnesses.

Causes of Heat Illnesses:

Heat-related illnesses are primarily caused by excessive heat, whether from physical exertion, hot environments, or weather conditions. High humidity levels above 60% make sweat evaporation challenging, leading to a disrupted heat dissipation process. When the body cannot effectively dissipate heat, the balance of salt and water is disturbed, resulting in increased body temperature. Inadequate sweating fails to keep the body cool.

Types of Heat Illnesses:

Heat illnesses can be categorized as mild or severe. Mild types include heat rash and heat cramps, while severe types include heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Symptoms of Heat Illnesses:

The symptoms vary depending on the type of heat illness:

  • Heat Rash: Red, itchy skin, prickly pain, small bumps or blisters in areas of skin contact.
  • Heat Cramps: Muscle pain and spasms in the legs, arms, or abdomen.
  • Heat Exhaustion: Quick, shallow breathing, heavy sweating, thirst, muscle cramps, headache, elevated body temperature, weakness, nausea, and decrease in urination.
  • Heat Stroke: Quick, strong pulse, dizziness, fainting, confusion, dry and hot skin, nausea, high body temperature, muscle twitching, seizures, hyperventilation, and lack of sweating.

Treatment of Heat Illnesses:

Mild heat illnesses like heat rash and heat cramps can often be treated at home. However, if symptoms persist or severe symptoms occur, immediate medical attention is required. Treatment options may include at-home remedies, outpatient care, or inpatient treatment, depending on the severity of the illness.

Preventing Heat-Related Illnesses:

Prevention is key in avoiding heat-related illnesses. Here are some essential tips:

  • Stay hydrated by drinking water every 15 minutes, even if you’re not thirsty, especially when working or exercising in a hot environment.
  • Take regular rest breaks in shaded or air-conditioned areas.
  • Wear loose, lightweight, light-colored cotton clothing and a wide-brimmed hat when outdoors.
  • Avoid alcohol and caffeinated beverages.
  • Limit outdoor activities during high-temperature and high-humidity conditions.
  • Apply sunscreen, wear sunglasses, and pace yourself

Seek Expert Consultation at Lifecare Hospital

If you have any concerns or need expert advice regarding heat-related illnesses, we encourage you to visit Lifecare Hospital Our team of experienced healthcare professionals is available to provide specialized care and guidance tailored to your specific needs.

Whether you have questions about preventing heat-related illnesses, require a thorough assessment of your symptoms, or need personalized treatment options, our medical experts are here to assist you. By visiting Lifecare Hospital, you can benefit from the knowledge and expertise of our skilled physicians who will evaluate your condition and provide recommendations based on your individual circumstances.

Heat-related illnesses should not be ignored, and seeking timely medical attention is crucial, especially if you experience severe symptoms or prolonged discomfort. At Lifecare Hospital , we prioritize your well-being and are committed to delivering comprehensive care to ensure your health and safety.

Take proactive steps to protect yourself from heat-related illnesses and remember that Lifecare Hospital is here to support you throughout your healthcare journey, providing the guidance and care you need.

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Krishnamurthy Hegde
Padmarajan T
Baiju Faizal
Haseena N M
Amjad Hussain
Rajashaker Reddy K
Mansoor Ahmed Bashir

Prostate Cancer – Symptoms & Risk Factors

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men. Approximately one in eight men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime.

If diagnosed at an early stage, a complete cure is possible. Excellent treatment is available in the advanced stage to control and prolong the life span. 

What are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer? 

  • Age: Risk increases with age. The majority of cases are discovered after the age of 65.
  • Genetics: Men with close family members with cancers of the prostate, breast, ovary, colon, or pancreas have a high risk of developing prostate cancer. BRCA is one such gene mutation.
  • Race: It is unknown yet, but men of African descent are 75% more likely to develop prostate cancer.
  • Smoking raises the risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer.
  • Diet: A lack of vegetables in the diet (especially broccoli) may
  • A high calcium intake increases the risk in the diet.
  • Obesity: Higher weight is associated with aggressive prostate cancer.
  • Lack of exercise
  • Increased sexual activity or increased ejaculation decreases the risk of prostate cancer.

Myth Busters: 

  • Benign prostate conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis do not increase the risk of prostate cancer.
  • High levels of sexual activity or frequent ejaculation do not increase risk.
  • Vasectomy does not increase the risk.
  • Aspirin and statins are used to reduce inflammation. They may reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. But they are not recommended for this purpose alone.
  • There is no link between alcohol and prostate cancer.
  • Supplements such as vitamin E and selenium do not help.

When to Get Checked 

Be proactive: Ask your doctor when you enter middle age. 

It depends upon the following: 

  • How old you are: Start talking to your doctor after the age of 45 years. Screening can be stopped at the age of 70 years
  • Family history
  • Race 

Pay Attention to the Following Warning Signs

  • Pain may not happen until the cancer is advanced. 
  • A need to urinate frequently, especially at night, sometimes urgently 
  • Difficulty starting or holding back urination 
  • The weak, dribbling, or interrupted flow of urine 
  • Painful or burning urination 
  • Difficulty in having an erection 
  • A decrease in the amount of fluid ejaculated 
  • Painful ejaculation 
  • Blood in the urine or semen 
  • Pressure or pain in the rectum 
  • Pain or stiffness in the lower back, hips, pelvis, or thighs 

It’s most important to keep the conversation open with your doctor. 

10 Ways to Prevent Prostate Cancer

  1. Adopt an “anti-inflammatory diet” high in foods that fight inflammation, such as vibrantly colored vegetables, and low in red meat, sweets, processed meals, and dairy products.
  2. Reduce your calorie intake and up your exercise to keep your weight in check. A man’s risk of acquiring deadly forms of prostate cancer has been decreased by engaging in vigorous exercise within the parameters of safety for his degree of physical fitness. Its recurrence is connected to obesity.
  3. Keep an eye on your calcium intake. Extreme calcium intake may raise the risk of the condition. Unless your doctor has prescribed supplements, try to acquire most of your calcium from plant-based dietary sources (such as almonds, tofu, and leafy greens) instead of supplements.
  4. Replace red meat with fish and plant-based proteins. Red meat’s saturated fat contributes to inflammation linked to chronic diseases, including cancer. Refrain from trans fatty acids (e.g., margarine, packaged baked goods).
  5. Include cruciferous vegetables (like broccoli and cauliflower) and cooked tomatoes (made with olive oil), which may be advantageous in your weekly meals.
  6. There are several reasons not to smoke. If you do consume alcohol, do it in moderation.
  7. For stress, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and depression, seek medical attention. Treating these problems may prolong your life and increase your chance of surviving the condition.
  8. Megavitamin supplementation should be avoided. A multivitamin is generally not dangerous, but if you eat a nutritious diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seafood, and healthy fats, you probably don’t need one. As some herbal supplements may harm you or interfere with your therapy, talk to your doctor before taking any.
  9. Unwind and embrace life. Your chances of surviving will increase, and you’ll live a longer, happier life if you reduce stress at work and at home.
  10. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of screening with a PSA test and, if necessary, a rectal examination with your doctor if you are a man aged 45 or older (40 or older if you are Black or have a family history of prostate cancer).

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Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment


Diabetes is a long-term medical illness in which your body can’t produce enough or use insulin as effectively as it should. Too much blood sugar remains in your bloodstream when insufficient insulin or cells cease reacting to insulin. That can eventually lead to major health issues like renal disease, eyesight loss, and heart disease.

Early Symptoms of Diabetes

  • Increased thirst 
  • Dry mouth 
  • Frequent urination 
  • Increased appetite 
  • Unexplained weight loss 

Type of Diabetes 

Type 1 Diabetes 

It is believed that an autoimmune reaction causes type 1 diabetes (the body attacks itself by mistake). This reaction stops your body’s production of insulin. Type 1 diabetes affects 5–10% of those with the disease. Typically, it begins in childhood.

Type 2 Diabetes 

Your body struggles to properly utilize insulin in type 2 diabetes, making it difficult to maintain normal blood sugar levels. The majority of diabetics (90–95%) are type 2. It takes years to develop, and adults are typically diagnosed with it (but more and more in children, teens, and young adults). If you are at risk, it is crucial to have your blood sugar tested because you might not exhibit any symptoms.

Gestational Diabetes 

Women who have never had the condition before and have become pregnant can develop gestational diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes, your unborn child may be more susceptible to health issues. After your baby is born, gestational diabetes typically disappears. However, it raises your chance of developing type 2 diabetes in later life.


Blood sugar levels are higher than normal in prediabetes but not high enough to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Your risk of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke increases if you have prediabetes. Early implementation of lifestyle programs helps avoid full-blown condition.


Blood sugar can be tested in 8-hour fasting and 2 hours after food. The HbA1C test gives the average blood sugar for the last three months. Kidney function tests, urine microalbumin, and blood cholesterol levels are also necessary for diagnosing and assessing the severity of the condition. 


  • We ask the diabetic patient to consult an Ophthalmologist yearly for a retina check-up to prevent and treat diabetes-related visual loss. 
  • A Neurologist may be involved in the care of diabetes if he develops neurological complications like weakness of the body, tingling of legs and hands, double vision, facial deviation, etc., to name a few. 
  • A kidney specialist is involved in caring for a diabetic – if he develops a severe protein leak in urine or if the kidney function test is abnormal. Diabetic kidney disease is the commonest reason for chronic kidney disease, dialysis, and kidney transplantation. 
  • The cardiologist is consulted if the patient develops chest pain at rest or during exertion. Heart attack is the most common reason for death in a diabetic. Recently noted chest pain/shortness of breath on exertion is a sign of decreased blood flow to heart blood vessels and should be considered seriously by a diabetic. 
  • A clinical dietitian is pivotal in advising on proper diet and nutrition. 
  • A dental consultation is advised as dental/gum problems are very common in chronic uncontrolled diabetes. 

Diabetes Complications

If the condition is treated poorly, it can become fatal. A few of the many complications of uncontrolled diabetes include

  • Kidney failure
  • Double vision
  • Eyesight loss
  • Facial weakness
  • Numbness and weakness in both legs
  • Lack of sexual drive
  • Heart attacks
  • Recurrent infections that can be fatal
  • Skin illnesses
  • Foot difficulties
  • Depression

Indicators to Get Immediate Medical Attention

  • Having trouble breathing
  • Unable to keep any liquids down for more than 4 hours. 
  • Losing 2.5kg or more during the illness
  • Blood sugar lower than 60 mg/dl
  • Feeling too sick to eat normally and unable to keep down food for more than 24 hours 
  • Vomiting and/or severe diarrhea for more than 6 hours
  • Temperature is over 101 degrees F for 24 hours
  • Feeling sleepy/blackout or can’t think clearly. Have someone else call your doctor or take you to the emergency room

Reducing the Risk of Diabetes

Meal Planning Recommended by CDC

  • Fill half with non-starchynon-starchy vegetables, such as salad, green beans, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and carrots. 
  • Fill one quarter with a lean protein, such as chicken, beans, eggs. 
  • Fill one quarter with carb foods. Foods that are higher in carbs include grains, starchy vegetables (such as potatoes and peas), rice, pasta, beans, fruit, and yogurt. A cup of milk also counts as a carb food. 


At least 150 min/week -moderate physical exercise will help you not only in blood sugar control but also for overall health. Ask your doctor if you are fit for exercise. Stress relief practices like yoga has tremendous benefits. 

Good Sleep

At least 6 hours will calm your anti-insulin hormones and helps you in better sugar control. 

Not to fear, not to pull back , Enjoy your life. Together we can beat diabetes!! 

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Hafeesh Fazulu Rahman
Khaled Galal 
Sekar Wariar
Subhani Shaik
Sarath Babu
Priya Mathew
Divya S Nair 
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Fayaz Ahmed Soomro
Tanuj Limbasiya
Sheena Balakrishnan
Monika Ankit

Chronic Kidney Disease – Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

The kidneys normally filter blood and remove waste and excess salt and water from the body. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the kidneys gradually lose their ability to function properly. When these toxic wastes and excess water accumulate in the blood, they can affect other body systems also, ultimately leading to ill health. As days go by, they can stop working completely. So it is very vital to prevent them from getting worse.  

What are the Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease?  

The most common causes of CKD are diabetes and high blood pressure. Other factors that can increase the risk of developing CKD include a family history of kidney disease, obesity, smoking, having protein in the urine, and having autoimmune diseases such as lupus. 

What are the Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease? 

In the early stages of the disease, CKD causes no symptoms. Patients may have leg swelling, high blood pressure, and tiredness as the disease worsens. In the advanced stage, they experience nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, altered sleep, shortness of breath, confusion, altered sensorium, and ultimately slip into a coma state. 

How Do Doctors Diagnose and Evaluate Chronic Kidney Disease?  

Doctors may order various tests to diagnose CKD and assess any possible reversible cause. 

Kidney function tests — By measuring the creatinine level in the blood, doctors estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This GFR helps measure the approximate filtering abilities of both kidneys and monitor kidney function impairment during the follow-up period. When GFR is reduced, this implies either worsening of CKD or the developing a new reversible kidney problem. But on the other hand, when there is an increase in GFR, it indicates an improvement in kidney function. A stable GFR in people with CKD shows the disease is stable. 

Urine tests — Urine is tested for the presence of albumin or protein in the urine (called albuminuria or proteinuria).  The earliest sign of CKD in some people with diabetes and high blood pressure is the leak of small amounts of albumin in the urine.  

Imaging studies — Imaging tests like ultrasound and computed tomography [CT] may be ordered to assess kidney size and echo texture and determine if there is any obstruction of the urinary tract or kidney stones. 

Kidney biopsy — In this test, doctors take a small piece of kidney tissue and examine it under a microscope. Biopsy test helps diagnose the underlying cause of kidney disease, enabling health professionals to choose the appropriate treatment regimen.  

Is Anything that Can be Done to Prevent the Kidneys from Getting Worse? 

Yes, we can protect our kidneys by the following:  

  • If you have diabetes, blood sugar has to be adequately controlled
  • Maintain your blood pressure at an optimum level       
  • Follow low salt, and other dietary restricted recommended by doctors and dieticians  
  • Quit smoking if you smoke
  • Maintain ideal weight if overweight  
  • Avoid taking medicines that can affect the kidneys, like painkillers (NSAIDs.) Before starting any new medications, check with the doctor whether it is safe for the kidneys.  

What are the Treatments for Chronic Kidney Disease? 

During the early stages of CKD, doctors prescribe medicines like ACE inhibitors” or “angiotensin receptor blockers to preserve the existing function of kidneys and protect them from further damage.  

What Happens if the Kidneys Stop Working Completely? 

When the kidneys stop working completely, the patient is in the last stage of CKD. There are three options available. 

Kidney transplantation. Here one kidney from another person is transplanted to the patient (We need only one functioning kidney to have a healthy life). In this way, this new kidney can do the job of his own failed kidneys. But he will need to take medicines for the rest of his life to prevent his body from rejecting his new kidney, which was originally obtained from another person. 

Hemodialysis. In this option, the patient is attached to the machine, which filters and cleans his blood. This has to be done for a few hours at least three times a week for the rest of his life.  

Peritoneal dialysis. A tube is placed in the belly of the patient through which he pipes in and out special fluid a few times every day. This technique is easy to perform but requires special training during initial periods.  

How to Choose Between the Different Treatment Options? 

The patient and his doctor need to work together to find the right treatment for him. Most of the time, the best option is kidney transplant surgery because a kidney can be replaced only by another functioning kidney. But often, there are no kidneys available for transplant. The patient needs to analyze the merits and demerits of various options openly with their doctor (nephrologist) and choose the best per his needs and possibilities. 

People may not have symptoms until their kidney function is reduced below 20%, akin to the mobile phone showing signs only when the charge level reaches below 20%. An early warning sign of kidney disease is a protein (albumin) leak in urine. 

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Abeesh Padmanabha Pillai